Make it so. file1 -> Makefile -> file225 Feb 2017
make-it-so is an old package of mine that I haven't yet highlighted on the blog. This package helps you manage a collection of makefiles that are used to generate new files from existing files using shell commands.
You can think of these makefiles as a directory of shell functions, arranged by the extension of the files that they operate on:
$ cd make-it-so && find recipes -name Makefile recipes/ipynb/to-md/Makefile recipes/ogv/crop/Makefile recipes/ogv/trim/Makefile recipes/ogv/to-gif/Makefile recipes/pdf/to-txt/Makefile recipes/md/to-org/Makefile recipes/md/to-html/Makefile recipes/cue/split/Makefile recipes/dot/to-png/Makefile recipes/m4a/to-mp3/Makefile recipes/flac/to-mp3/Makefile recipes/gif/gifsicle/Makefile recipes/svg/to-png/Makefile recipes/chm/to-pdf/Makefile recipes/txt/encode-utf8/Makefile recipes/mp4/to-mp3/Makefile recipes/mp4/trim/Makefile recipes/mp4/replace-audio/Makefile recipes/png/to-gif/Makefile
When you call
make-it-so on a particular file, you get completion
for the recipes that are available for that file extension, along with
an option to create a new recipe.
Example 1: convert
Suppose you want to convert a PDF file
test.pdf to a text file
In case the recipe is in your collection, you don't have to remember the command or the command switches to do it anymore:
- Navigate to
diredand press , (bound to
- Select the recipe you want using completion:
to-txtis already provided.
Your file and the makefile recipe are moved to the staging area:
The makefile is opened in a new buffer with the following bindings:
- f5 (
mis-save-and-compile) will run
test.txtin the current directory.
- C-, (
mis-finalize) will finalize the operation, moving
test.txtto the parent directory (where
test.pdfwas before), and deleting the staging directory.
- C-M-, (
mis-abort) will move
test.pdfback to its initial location and delete all generated files. This command is effectively an
- f5 (
It takes a large chunk of text to describe everything, but the key sequence for doing all this is quite short:
- , -
- RET - select
- f5 - create
- C-, - finalize.
Example 2: make a gif from a series of png images
I'll describe the process of creating a high quality gif like this one, which describes the effect of the C key in lispy:
First, I use kazam to take two
screenshots of my Emacs screen:
$ ls -1 *.png Screenshot 2017-02-25 16:14:49.png Screenshot 2017-02-25 16:15:10.png
I plan to use gifsicle to sequence
the still images into a gif. But it only takes
gif as the input
format, so first I have to convert my
png files to non-animated
I open the
dired buffer where they are located and mark them with
dired-mark). Then call
make-it-so with ,
to-gif recipe. This recipe has no parameters, so there's
nothing else to do but f5 C-,. Two new files are created:
$ ls -1 *.png *.gif Screenshot_2017-02-25 16:14:49.gif Screenshot_2017-02-25 16:14:49.png Screenshot_2017-02-25 16:15:10.gif Screenshot_2017-02-25 16:15:10.png
Note that the file names (the defaults of
kazam) are problematic
when used with makefiles, since they contain spaces and colons. The
Elisp layer of
make-it-so takes care of that. It renames the files
back and forth so that the logic in the makefiles remains simple.
Next, I mark the two
gif files using *%
dired-mark-files-regexp), press , once more and select
gifsicle recipe. I'm presented a makefile with the following
# ——— parameters ————————————————————————————————— # delay between frames in hundredths of a second delay = 60 # ——— implementation ————————————————————————————— DIRGIF = $(shell ls *.gif | grep -v anime.gif) all: anime.gif anime.gif: Makefile $(DIRGIF) rm -f anime.gif gifsicle --delay=$(delay) --colors=256 --loop $(DIRGIF) > $@ echo $@ >> provide clean: rm -f anime.gif provide install-tools: sudo apt-get install gifsicle .PHONY: all install-tools clean
The most commonly useful parameter, the delay between frames, is
nicely documented at the top. I don't have to remember that the switch
--delay or that the switch style
--delay=60 is used. I
simply change the number above until I get the result that I want.
Example 3: add a new recipe
As a sample scenario, assume you want to convert *.svg to *.png.
An internet search leads to Stack Overflow and this command:
inkscape -z -e test.png -w 1024 -h 1024 test.svg
Navigate to the file(s) in
dired and call
,. No default actions are available, so just type "to-png"
and hit RET. The "to-" prefix signifies that this is a
conversion, adapting the Makefile to this form:
# This is a template for the Makefile. # Parameters should go in the upper half as: # width = 200 # and be referenced in the command as $(width) # ____________________________________________ DIRSVG = $(shell dir *.svg) DIRPNG = $(DIRSVG:.svg=.png) all: clean Makefile $(DIRPNG) %.png: %.svg echo "add command here" echo $@ >> provide clean: rm -f *.png provide # Insert the install command here. # e.g. sudo apt-get install ffmpeg install-tools: echo "No tools required" .PHONY: all install-tools clean
If the action name doesn't have a "to-" prefix, the transformation is assumed to be e.g. "svg" -> "out.svg". You can change this of course by editing the Makefile.
In case the command needs additional packages in order to work you
might want to change
echo "No tools required" to the appropriate
package install instruction, e.g.
sudo apt-get install inkscape.
When you're on a new system, this will serve as a reminder of what you should install in order for the Makefile to work. Simply call:
echo "add command here" with:
inkscape -z -e $@ -w $(width) -h $(height) $^
heightwill go to the top of the Makefile, where they can be customized.
$@refers to the output file,
test.pngin this case.
$^refers to the input file,
test.svgin this case.
That's it. You can see the final
Test if the command works with f5 from the Makefile. If
you're happy with it, call
mis-finalize with C-, from
dired. The Makefile will be saved for all future calls to
To summarize the advantages of
- Write the recipe one time, never have to look up how to do the same thing a few months from now.
- A chance to write the recipe zero times, if someone in the community has already done it and shared the recipe with you.
- The Elisp layer takes care of hairy file names.
- Parallel commands on multiple files, i.e.
make -j8, are provided for free.
The most important usage tip: until you're sure that the command and the Makefile work properly make backups. In fact, make backups period. Happy hacking!